I Motivofion I 1. Brocketing Methods I l4 5.
Its purpose is to sentence accept or reject lots, not to estimate the lot quality. Although sampling reduces cost, damage, and inspection error, it increases type I and type I1 errors and requires planning and documentation.
The samples should be selected randomly and the items in the sample should be representative of all of the items in the lot.
Stratification of the lot is a commonly applied technique. The specification of the sample size and of the acceptance criterion is called sampling plan.
The two most popular table of standards are the Dodae-Romig tables and the militaw standard tables.
Acceptance sampling plans can be classified according to the quality characteristics or the number of samples taken. The criterion for accepting a lot is defined by the acceptance number. This sampling makes use of cumulative results of several proceeding lots. The lot is accepted if the sample has zero defective items, and rejected if the sample has more than one defective item.
If the sample has one defective item the lot is accepted only if there were no defective items in a predefined number of previous lots. Chain sampling makes the shape of the OC curve more desirable near its origin.
Sampling inspection continues until a certain number of defective items are reached. First an initial sample is taken and, on the basis of the information from that sample, the lot is either accepted or rejected, or a second sample is taken.
If a second sample is taken the final decision is based on the combined information from the two samples. A double sampling plan for attributes is defined by four parameters: First a random sample of nl items is inspected.
If the number of defective items dl is less than or equal to a1 the lot is accepted on the first sample. If dl is greater than a2, the lot is rejected on the first sample. If dl is between a1 and a2, a second random sample of size n2 is inspected resulting in d2 defective items.
If dl d2 is less than or equal to a2, then the lot is accepted, otherwise rejected. It can also be used for nonnormally distributed quality characteristics. Ten random samples, each of five items are usually used to construct the frequency distribution and to establish upper and lower lot limits.
The lot-plot diagram, which is the basis of lot sentencing, is very similar to an average chart. A multiple sampling plan for attributes is defined by the number of samples, their size, and an acceptance number and a rejection number for each sample. If the number of defective items dj in any of the samplesj is less than or equal to the acceptance number a, of that sample, the lot is accepted.
If d, equals or exceeds the rejection number rj of that sample, the lot is rejected; otherwise the next sample is taken. Samples are taken one after another and inspected. On the basis of the result of the inspection a decision is made on whether the lot is accepted, rejected or another sample must be drawn.
The sample size is often one. A single sample plan for attributes is defined by the sample size n and the acceptance number a.
From a lot n items are selected at random and inspected. If the number of defective items d is less than or equal to a the lot is accepted, otherwise rejected. The distribution of d is binomial with parameters n and P d defective fraction in the lot.
It is used only when the quality is known to be good. It can be viewed as a continuous sampling applied to lots instead of individual items. When a certain number of lots are accepted, the inspection switches to skipping, i. When a lot is rejected the inspection returns to normal lot-by-lot inspection.Exercise Write a program to print a block E using asterisks (*), where the E has a height of seven characters and a width of five characters.
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