Determining paper grain direction

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Determining paper grain direction

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Here I present a very personal viewpoint, focusing on my own path to quantum entanglement and then on to applications. I have been fascinated by quantum physics ever since I heard about it for the first time in school.

The theory struck me immediately for two reasons: Particularly fascinating for me were the predictions of quantum mechanics for individual particles, individual quantum systems. Surprisingly, the experimental realization of many of these fundamental phenomena has led to novel ideas for applications.

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Starting from my early experiments with neutrons, I later became interested in quantum entanglement, initially focusing on multi-particle entanglement like GHZ states.

This work opened the experimental possibility to do quantum teleportation and quantum hyper-dense coding. The latter became the first entanglement-based quantum experiment breaking a classical limitation. One of the most fascinating phenomena is entanglement swapping, the teleportation of an entangled state.

This phenomenon is fundamentally interesting because it can entangle two pairs of particles which do not share any common past. Surprisingly, it also became an important ingredient in a number of applications, including quantum repeaters which will connect future quantum computers with each other.

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Another application is entanglement-based quantum cryptography where I present some recent long-distance experiments. Within the physics community such loophole-free experiments are perceived as providing nearly definitive proof that local realism is untenable. While, out of principle, local realism can never be excluded entirely, the achievements narrow down the remaining possibilities for local realistic explanations of the quantum phenomenon of entanglement in a significant way.

These experiments may go down in the history books of science. Future experiments will address particularly the freedom-of-choice loophole using cosmic sources of randomness.

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The fact that the experiments were loophole-free proves that an eavesdropper cannot avoid detection in an experiment that correctly follows the protocol. I finally discuss some recent experiments with single- and entangled-photon states in higher dimensions.

Such experiments realized quantum entanglement between two photons, each with quantum numbers beyond 10 and also simultaneous entanglement of two photons where each carries more than dimensions. Thus they offer the possibility of quantum communication with more than one bit or qubit per photon.

Even if some of his positions are not supported by recent experiments, he has to be given credit for the fact that his analysis of fundamental issues gave rise to developments which led to a new information technology.

Introduction. Voting is an iconic embodiment in American civic life. Other than standing for public office, American citizens have no stronger collective civic obligations than those that flow from their ability and responsibility to help shape community policy. Science policy issues have recently joined technology issues in being acknowledged to have strategic importance for national ‘competitiveness’ and ‘economic security’. Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi.

Finally, I reflect on some of the lessons learned by the fact that nature cannot be local, that objective randomness exists and about the emergence of a classical world. It is suggestive that information plays a fundamental role also in the foundations of quantum physics.There are alternative viewpoints, however, that question just how efficient and natural the market mechanism is.

They argue that actual markets in any society is embedded within a set of institutional rules, laws, and customs that determine how well the market works. Caliper or Thickness For a given basis weight, thickness determines how bulky or dense paper is.

A well beaten/refined pulp, short fiber pulp such as hard wood or straw pulp, highly filled or loaded paper will show lower thickness for given basis weight.

Determining paper grain direction

Physica Scripta, endorsed by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, is an international journal dedicated to presenting novel and accessible research findings across the breadth of theoretical and experimental physics.

OPEN FOR SUBMISSIONS. Submit an article. Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi.

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His work has helped me better understand ways to maintain and improve brain function and to prevent and treat diseases of the nervous system that are not managed well by conventional medicine.

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