Students communicate and collaborate both locally and globally to reinforce and promote learning. Research and information fluency includes the acquisition and evaluation of digital content. Students develop critical-thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills by collecting, analyzing, and reporting digital information.
Key features[ edit ] A number of different kinds of argument map have been proposed but the most common, which Chris Reed and Glenn Rowe called the standard diagram,  consists of a tree structure with each of the reasons leading to the conclusion.
There is no consensus as to whether the conclusion should be at the top of the tree with the reasons leading up to it or whether it should be at the bottom with the reasons leading down to it. Each number represents a proposition premise or conclusion in the argument being diagrammed.
The other component is a set of lines or arrows joining the points. Each line arrow represents an inference. The whole network of points and lines represents a kind of overview of the reasoning in the given argument There is disagreement on the terminology to be used when describing argument maps,  but the standard diagram contains the following structures: Dependent premises or co-premises, where at least one of the joined premises requires another premise before it can give support to the conclusion: An argument with this structure has been called a linked argument.
Although independent premises may jointly make the conclusion more convincing, this is to be distinguished from situations where a premise gives no support unless it is joined to another premise.
Where several premises or groups of premises lead to a final conclusion the argument might be described as convergent.
This is distinguished from a divergent argument where a single premise might be used to support two separate conclusions.
In the following diagram, statement 4 is an intermediate conclusion in that it is a conclusion in relation to statement 5 but is a premise in relation to the final conclusion, i.
An argument with this structure is sometimes called a complex argument. If there is a single chain of claims containing at least one intermediate conclusion, the argument is sometimes described as a serial argument or a chain argument.
In the following diagram, the contention is shown at the top, and the boxes linked to it represent supporting reasons, which comprise one or more premises. The green arrow indicates that the two reasons support the contention: A box and line diagram Argument maps can also represent counterarguments.
In the following diagram, the two objections weaken the contention, while the reasons support the premise of the objection: A sample argument using objections Representing an argument as an argument map[ edit ] Diagramming written text[ edit ] A written text can be transformed into an argument map by following a sequence of steps.
Monroe Beardsley 's book Practical Logic recommended the following procedure: Put circles around the logical indicators. Supply, in parenthesis, any logical indicators that are left out.
Set out the statements in a diagram in which arrows show the relationships between statements. A diagram of the example from Beardsley's Practical Logic Beardsley gave the first example of a text being analysed in this way: A box and line diagram of Beardsley's example, produced using Harrell's procedure More recently, philosophy professor Maralee Harrell recommended the following procedure: Rewrite them as independent statements, eliminating non-essential words.
Identify which statements are premises, sub-conclusions, and the main conclusion. Provide missing, implied conclusions and implied premises. This is optional depending on the purpose of the argument map.If being “uninvolved alienated” with other students* is increasing your critical thinking skills, then a lot of mental illnesses and disabilities should correlate positively with critical thinking or at least should dampen the negative effects of said illnesses.
The Thinker’s Guide To Fallacies: The Art of Mental Trickery and Manipulation By Dr. Richard Paul and Dr. Linda Elder The Foundation for Critical Thinking.
The Inquiry Chart (I-chart) is a strategy that enables students to gather information about a topic from several sources.
Teachers design the I-chart around several questions about a topic.
Students read or listen to several sources on the topic and record answers to the posed questions within the I-chart. Students generate a summary in the final row.
§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Technology Applications, Elementary, Beginning with School Year A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and.
Bloom’s Critical Thinking Cue Questions. Cue Questions Based on Blooms’ Taxonomy of Critical Thinking • How would you organize _____ to show ?