Posted on July 23, By thesuccessmanual Topic: I arranged this list of most influential and useful books of all time differently. In this way, I hope this list becomes accessible to a broader group of people. What are the greatest books every person must have?
And it has been the consistent opinion of the Supreme Court beginning with Hylton v. United States, 3 U. United States, U. The income tax that was challenged in the Pollock decision was similar, and the majority opinion first struck down the tax on incomes from property i.
That a tax on wages and other compensation for labor would have been constitutional even before the adoption of the 16th Amendment was confirmed by the unanimous decision of the Supreme Court in Brushaber, in which the court stated: See also, Charczuk v.
After the Brushaber decision, the Supreme Court still followed the doctrine established by the decision in Collector v. However, in a case challenging the application of the federal income tax to the salaries of employees of the Port of New York Authority a bi-state corporation formed by New York and New Jerseythe Supreme Court clearly stated that Congress could tax the earnings of those employees in the same manner as employees private businesses: The taxpayers enjoy the benefits and protection of the laws of the United States.
They are under a duty to support its government and are not beyond the reach of its taxing power. A nondiscriminatory tax laid on their net income, in common with that of all other members of the community, could by no reasonable probability be considered to preclude the performance of the function which New York and New Jersey have undertaken, or to obstruct it more than like private enterprises are obstructed by our taxing system.
The Supreme Court explicitly overruled Collector v.
Day in Graves v. New York ex rel. Their compensation, whether paid out of the returns from the business or otherwise, can have no quality, so far as the federal taxing power is concerned, superior to that of the enterprise in which the compensated service is rendered.
We conclude that the Congress had the constitutional authority to lay the tax. None of these decisions would have been unnecessary if Congress did not have the power to tax wages and salaries generally. The decisions were necessary only because the Supreme Court already knew that it was constitutional to tax the compensation of a private business and so the issue was whether state employees should be treated differently.
The Supreme Court initially held that state employees should be treated differently, but then eventually reversed itself and concluded that the same taxes should be paid by state employees as any other employee.
In the case of Commissioner v. Kowalski, US 77the Supreme Court held that meal allowances paid by the state of New Jersey to state troopers constituted income subject to tax.
Kowalski, US 77, 83 The lower courts have therefore had no problem in holding that an unapportioned income tax on wages is constitutional. The Court also noted that in Pollock v. See also, United States v.
United States, F. As far as the author has been able to determine, the above quotation has never been cited or discussed by any federal court.
The next time that Adam Smith is mentioned in a Supreme Court opinion is in a unanimous opinion written by Chief Justice Chase in Attempts to answer it by reference to the definitions of political economists have been frequently made, but without satisfactory results.
The enumeration of the different kinds of taxes which Congress was authorized to impose was probably made with very little reference to their speculations.
This sentiment was followed in the second Pollock decision, in which the majority stated:JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade.
Note: This list is from The Success Manual, the popular compilation of advice on 25 essential business skills and career skills.I arranged this list of most influential and useful books of all time differently. Rather than the same old, bland categories of science, drama, fiction, and non-fiction, I have used these tags instead - ancient classics, all-time-great novels, books about modern. Background of 'The Wealth of Nations' An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the full name of the famous book by Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. Known more commonly by its shortened name, The Wealth of Nations was published in Understanding Capitalism Part V: Evolution of the American Economy. By - March 15, When the United States of America was founded in it was the most egalitarian Western nation in the world for citizens of European descent, indeed one of the most egalitarian major societies in .
The Wealth of Nations Summary provides a free full summary, key takeaways, best quotes and author biography of Adam Smith’s book regarding wealth. Adam Smith’s inspiring account of political economy is a book par excellence.
Analysis of Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith The reasons for writing a book such as Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations are many, and Smith seems to have had several in mind. His study traces the stages in the development of the modern economic system in an attempt to explain it, maps out the origins of money, and finally tackles the issues.
Clarke's Bookshop (established in ) is situated in Cape Town, South Africa and carries both new and second hand books on Southern Africa. The Venerable Bede, in his monastery at Jarrow, completes his history of the English church and people.