Mom, movie buff, champion for women and girls. Women and girls face unimaginable challenges in almost every part of the world.
Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world.
From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social and physical world that makes it understandable. Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences.
Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously.
Analytical Task The general analytical problem. In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently. Our analytical task this week is to attempt a "simple" causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress.
The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.
Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages.
The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question "what causes X? Examples of such questions might be "why do people in group A do X more than those in group B? If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that 1 vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and 2 that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way.
For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently?
Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation.
Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and nonconformity.
What causes differences in dress "codes" across cultures? What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress?
The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies and time. Clothing differs between "primitive" cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern?
Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing. Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context?This essay will particularly focus on the issue of stratification by gender, or in other words, gender inequality.
Gender inequality or also known as gender stratification, is the unequal distribution of a society’s wealth, power, and privilege between females and males.
Gender equality is the removal of deep-seated barriers to equality of opportunity and outcome, such as discriminatory laws, customs, practices and institutional processes.
It also entails concern with the development of the freedoms of all individuals, irrespective of . Nov 18, · Current Issue Follow @theprospect The Single Best Argument Against Inequality.
David Callahan. Americans are definitely open to this argument, especially during times like now when a warped, anemic economy is mainly just raising the yachts, and not the boats of ordinary people.
Gender Inequality Still an Issue in America. Yes, gender inequality is still an issue in the United States of America. There is still a "glass ceiling" in which women are .
Yet gender issues are not focused on women alone, but on the relationship between men and women in society. (Source) The actions and attitudes of men and boys play an essential role in achieving gender equality. The first thing I notice when I'm confronted with this argument is that the feminism-opposer almost always operates on the male/female gender binary, and that's already a problem.